So finally I found the reason of mysterious stuck and it is extremely simple, to such an extent that I am a little ashamed to admit
When the extruder turns reel with loading filament at a certain moment it stretches the material and, as a result, contracts in the cavity of the entrance hole of extruder and thereby gets stuck at the very beginning, before entering the gears, what explains successful unloading, when the filament stuck, and printing only 1-2 layers for small part, what is equal to point of reel turn when wire is stretched.
The solution to this problem also simple, I just unwound the wire and keep it free to not stretch and avoid this blockage, which even not looks like deformation, but as a slight thickening on tiny area after release and compression of flexible material, when the wheel turns after pulling the wire, then failure occurs
Seems like problem is solved, now I have to figure out, how can I make TPU printing a bit faster, it is too slow, I will try 30
Thank you for your attentive support